To fix this, it seems that you'll need to explicitly agree to the license agreement.
If you end up with multiple versions of Xcode, you can select the version you want with:
xcode-select --switch /Applications/Xcode.app
Or if you want to run command line tools without Xcode:
xcode-select --switch /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools
See this article for more information.
I always keep an eye on my MacBook's battery percentage—especially since, as a developer, I run a lot of resource-intensive applications.